Vacuums and Atoms
In the 1960s, CSL invented tools that pushed the limits in the science of measurement.
The Schuemann Suppressor Ionization Gauge
Wilfred Schuemann's gauge measured pressure in ultra-high vacuums - pressure tens of thousands of times lower than could be measured before. The gauge was widely used in laboratories to simulate the ultra-high vacuum conditions of outer space and to calibrate gauges aboard satellites. It was also used in studies that involve ultra-clean surfaces.
CSL pioneered the use of the field ion microscope to observe and measure the movement of atoms on solids. This ability is crucial in the growth and evaporation of crystals and thin films - the foundation of electronic devices.