Robert A Easter

Robert A Easter
Robert A Easter
Professor Emeritus, CSL

For more information

Education

  • University of Illinois, Ph.D., 1976, Animal Sciences
  • Texas A&M University, M.S., 1972, Animal Nutrition
  • Texas A&M University, B.A., 1970, Agricultural Education

Other Professional Activities

  • 1996-2001 Dean, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences 2002-present
  • Professor and Head AS: UIUC
  • Professor 1987-1996
  • Associate Professor 1980-1987
  • UIUC: Assistant Professor 1976-1980

Resident Instruction

  • An Sci 400 Nonruminant Nutrition Seminar 1/4u 1977 to present (irregular)

Research Interests

  • In 1996, R. A. Easter became Head of the Department of Animal Sciences at the UIUC. Of necessity, the lab was reduced in size. In 2002 Dr. Easter accepted the position of Dean, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. Consequently, th
  • Between 1992 and 1999 work in the lab emphasized the sow although there continued to be work done with weanling pigs and one Ph.D. student examined vitamin A toxicosis in adult dogs. In the case of the sow first effort was to develop a method for measurin
  • Dr. Easter's Swine Nutrition Lab at the University of Illinois was first organized in 1976 when Easter joined the Department of Animal Science faculty, the lab has focused on a variety of topics in the intervening years. From the late 1970s through the mi

Research Areas

  • Technology and Societal Impacts

Books Authored or Co-Authored (Original Editions)

  • Book, Chinese Pork Industry Handbook Ellis, M. and Easter R. A. 1997

Selected Articles in Journals

  • B.J. Kerr, L.L. Southern, T.D. Bidner, K.G. Friesen, and R.A., Easter. 2003. Influence of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation, and dietary energy levels on growing-finishing pig performance and carcass composition. 81:3075-3087
  • B.J. Kerr, J.T. Yen, J.A. Nienaber, and R.A. Easter. 2003. Influences of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation and environmental temperature on performance, body composition, organ weights and total heat production of of growing pigs. 81:1998-
  • B.J. Kerr, J.T. Yen, J.A. Nienaber, and R.A. Easter. 2003. Influences of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation and environmental temperature on performance, body composition, organ weights and total heat production of growing pigs. 81:1998-200
  • J.T. Yen, B.J. Kerr, R. A. Easter, and A.M. Parkhurst. 2003. Difference in rates of net portal absorption between crystalline and protein-bound lysine and threonine in growing pigs fed once daily. 82:1079-1090
  • Nielsen, T.T., N. L. Trottier, C. Bellaver, H.H. Stein, and R. A. Easter. 2002. Effect of litter size on mammary gland amino acid uptake in lactating sows. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2402-2411
  • Kerr, B. J., J. T. Yen, J. A. Neinaber, and R. A. Easter. 200X. Influences of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation and environmental temperature on performance, body composition, organ weights and heat production of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci
  • Kerr, B. J., L. L. Southern, T. D. Bidner, K. G. Friesen and R. A. Easter. 200X. Influence of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation, and dietary energy levels on growing-finishing pig performance, and carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. (in rev
  • Kim, S. W., R. A. Easter and W. L. Hurley. 2001. The regression of unsuckled mammary glands during lactation in sows: the influence of lactations stage, dietary nutrients and litter size. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2659-2668.
  • Kim, S. W., D. H. Baker and R. A. Easter. 2001. Dynamic ideal protein and limiting amino acids for lactating sows: the impact of amino acid mobilization. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2356-2366.
  • Kim, S.W. and R. A. Easter. 2001. Nutrient mobilization from body tissues as influenced by litter size in lactating sows. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2179:2186
  • Stein, H. H., S. W. Kim, T. T. Nielsen and R. A. Easter. 2001. Standardized ileal protein and amino acid digestibility by growing pigs and sows. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2113-2122.
  • Kim, S. W. and R. A. Easter. 2001. Nutritional value of fish meals in the diet for young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1829-1839
  • Easter, R. A. and S. W. Kim. 2000. Recent advances in proteins sources for weanling pigs. Proc. 2000 International Symposium "Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition." Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:252-260.
  • Kim. S. W., M. Grossman, H. H. Stein, I. K. Han and R. A. Easter. 2000. A nonlinear model for mammary gland growth and regression in lactating sows. Growth Dev. Aging 64:71-81.
  • Whang, K. Y., F. K. McKeith, S. W. Kim and R. A. Easter. 2000. Effect of starter feeding program on growth performance and gains of body components from weaning to market weight in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2885-2895.
  • Cromwell, G. L., C. C. Calvert, T. R. Cline, J. D. Crenshaw, T. D. Crenshaw, R. A. Easter, R. C. Ewan, C. R. Hamilton, G. M. Hill, A. J. Lewis, D. C. Mahan, E. R. Miller, J. L. Nelssen, J. E. Pettigrew, L. F. Tribble, T. L. Veum, and J. T. Yen (NCR-42 Com
  • Kim, S. W., W. L. Hurley, I. K. Han, and R. A. Easter. 2000. Growth of Nursing Pigs Related to the Characteristics of Nursed Mammary Glands. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1313-1318.
  • Lindemann, M. D., G. L. Cromwell, H. J. Monegue, H. Cook, K. T. Soltwedel, S. Thomas, and R. A. Easter. 2000. Feeding value of an enzymatically digested protein for early weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 78:318-327.
  • Whang, K. Y. and R. A. Easter. 1999. Blood urea nitrogen as an index efficiency and lean growth potential in growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. pp. 811-816.
  • Whang, K. Y., S. M. Donovan, and R. A. Easter. 1999. Effect of Protein Deprivation on Subsequent Efficiency of Dietary Protein Utilization in Finishing Pigs. J. Animal Sci. pp. 659-665.
  • Kim, S. W., I. Osaka, W. L. Hurley, and R. A. Easter. 1999. Mammary Gland Growth as Affected by Litter Size in Lactating Sows: Impact on Lysine Requirement. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3316-3321.
  • Kim, S. W., W. L. Hurley, I. K. Han, H. H. Hans, and R. A. Easter. 1999. Effect of Nutrient Intake on Mammary Gland Growth in Lactating Sows. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3304-3315.
  • Kim, S. W., W. L. Hurley, I. K. Han, and R. A. Easter. 1999. Changes in tissue composition associated with mammary gland growth during lactation in the sow. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2510- 2516.
  • Stein, H. H., N. L. Trottier, C. Bellaver, and R. A. Easter. 1999. The effect of feeding level and physiological status on total flow and amino acid composition of endogeneous protein at the distal ileum in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1180-1187.
  • Stein, H. H., S. Aref, and R. A. Easter. 1999. Comparative protein and amino acid digestibilities in growing pigs and sows. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1169-1179.
  • Stein, H. H., C. F. Shipley, and R. A. Easter. 1998. Technical note: a technique for inserting a T-cannula into the distal ileum of pregnant sows. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1433-1436.
  • Easter, R. A. and S. W. Kim. 1998. Recent advances in the nutrition of the high producing sow. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 11:769-773.
  • Bellaver, C. and R. A. Easter. 1998. Evaluation of swine diet formulation based on amino acid digestibility estimates. Pesquisa-Agropecuaria-Brasileira. 33:745-754.
  • Bellaver, C. and R. A. Easter. 1998. Estimates of true ileal digestibilities of corn, soyabean meal and alternative feed ingredients for swine. Pesquisa-Agropecuaria-Brasileira. 33:737- 744.
  • Bellaver, C., C. M. Parsons, R. A. Easter. 1998. Estimates of true amino acid digestibilities in feed ingredients using precision-fed, caecectomized roosters. Pesquisa-Agropecuaria- Brasileira. 33:731-736
  • Cline, J. L., G. L. Czarnecki-Maulden, C. R. Sipe, J. M. Losonsky and R. A. Easter. 1997. Effect of increasing vitamin A on bone density of adult dogs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2980-2985.
  • Trottier, N. L., C. F. Shipley and R. A. Easter. 1997. Plasma amino acid uptake by the mammary gland of the lactating sow J. Anim. Sci. 75:1266-1278.
  • Cisneros, F., M. Ellis, D. H. Baker, R. A. Easter, and F. K. McKeith. 1996. The influence of short-term feeding of amino acid-deficient diets and high dietary leucine levels on the intramuscular fat content of pig muscle. Anim. Sci. 63:517-5222959.
  • Zijlstra, R. T., K.-Y. Whang, R. A. Easter and J. Odle. 1996. Effect of feeding a milk replacer to early-weaned pigs on growth, body composition and small-intestinal morphology, compared to suckled littermates. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2948-2959.
  • Trottier, N. L., C. F. Shipley and R. A. Easter. 1996. Arteriovenous differences for amino acids, urea nitrogen, ammonia, and glucose across the mammary gland of the lactating sow. J. Anim. Sci. 73 (Suppl. 2):57-58.
  • Cline, J. L., J. Odle and R. A. Easter. 1996. Riboflavin requirement of the adult dog at maintenance is greater than previous estimates. J. Nutr. 126:984-988.
  • Krause, D. O. R. A. Easter and R. I. Mackie. 1994. Fermentation of stachyose and raffinose by hind-gut bacteria of the weanling pig. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 18:349.
  • Krause, D. O., R. A. Easter, B. A. White and R. I. Mackie. 1995. Effect of weaning diet on the ecology of adherent lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tract of the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2347.
  • Trottier, N. L., C. F. Shipley and R. A. Easter. 1995. A technique for the venous cannulation of the mammary gland in the lactating sow. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1390-1395.
  • Trottier, N. L. and R. A. 1995. Easter. Dietary and plasma branched-chain amino acids in relation to tryptophan: Effect on voluntary feed intake and lactation metabolism in the sow. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1086-1092.
  • Jackson, J. R., W. L. Hurley, R. A. Easter, A. H. Jensen and J. Odle. 1995. Effects of induced or delayed parturition and supplemental dietary fat on colostrum and milk composition in sows. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1906-1913.
  • Kerr, B. J., F. K. McKeith and R. A. Easter. 1995. Effect on performance and carcass characteristics of nursery to finisher pigs fed reduced-crude protein, amino acid supplemented diets. J. Anim. Sci. 73:433-440.
  • Krause, D. O., P. C. Harrison and R. A. Easter. 1994. Characterization of the nutritional interactions between organic acids and inorganic bases in the pig and chick. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1257-1262.
  • Newcomb, M. D., R. S. Ott, T. van Kempen, Y. H. Lan, F. K. McKeith, J. E. Novakofski, P. J. Bechtel and R. A. Easter. 1993. Effect of hyperalimentation on body composition in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 71:144-150.
  • Cannon, J. E., P. J. Bechtel, R. A. Easter, H. Cook, F. K. McKeith, D. E. Leszcynski. 1992. Effects of diet containing extruded full-fat soybeans or butter on the growth, composition and sensory characteristics of pork. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3651.
  • Leszczynski, D. E., J. Pikul, R. A. Easter, F. K. McKeith, D. G. McLaren, J. Novakofski, P. J. Bechtel and D. E. Jewell. 1992. Characterization of lipid in loin and bacon from finishing pigs fed full-fat soybeans or tallow. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2175-2181.
  • Leszczynski, D. E., J. Pikul, R. A. Easter, F. K. McKeith, D. G. McLaren, J. Novakofski, D. E. Jewell and P. J. Bechtel. 1992. Effect of feeding finishing pigs extruded, full-fat soybeans on performance and pork quality. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2167-2174.
  • Giesting, D. W., M. A. Roos and R. A. Easter. 1991. Evaluation of the effect of fumaric acid and sodium bicarbonate addition on performance of starter pigs fed diets of different types. J. Anim. Sci. 69:2489-2496.
  • Giesting, D. W. and R. A. Easter. 1991. Effect of protein source and fumaric acid supplementation on apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients by young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:2497-2503.
  • Stuber, D. C., C. L. Johnson, C. A. Green, D. G. McLaren, J. M. Bahr and R. A. Easter. 1990. Effect of thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) on the secretion profile of prolactin (PRL) and thyroxine (T4) in cycling gilts and lactating sows. Dom. Anim. Endo. 7:2
  • O'Connor, D. L., M. F. Picciano, M. A. Roos and R. A. Easter. 1990. Iron and folate in reproducing swine and their progeny. J. Nutr. 119:1984-1991.
  • McLaren, D. G., P. J. Bechtel, G. L. Grebner, J. Novakofski, F. K. McKeith, R. W. Jones, R. H. Dalrymple and R. A. Easter. 1990. Dose response in growth of pigs injected daily with porcine somatotropin from 57 to 103 kg. J. Anim. Sci. 68:640-651.
  • Chapple, R. P., J. A. Cuaron and R. A. Easter. 1989. Temporal changes in carbohydrate digestive capacity and growth rate of piglets in response to glucocorticoid administration and weaning age. J. Anim.Sci. 67:2985-2995.
  • Chapple, R. P., J. A. Cuaron and R. A. Easter. 1989. Response of digestive carbohydrases and growth to graded doses and administration frequency of hydrocortisone and ACTH in nursing piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2974-2984.
  • Chapple, R. P., J. A. Cuaron and R. A. Easter. 1989. Effect of glucocorticoids and limited nursing on the carbohydrate digestive capacity and growth rate of piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2956-2973.
  • O'Day, M. B., R. J. Winn, R. A. Easter, P. J. Dziuk and O. D. Sherwood. 1989. Hormonal control of the cervix in pregnant gilts. 2. Changes in the physical properties of the cervix in ovariectomized, hormone-treated pregnant gilts. Endocrinology 125:3004.
  • Eldridge-White, R., R. A. Easter, D. M. Heaton, M. B. O'Day, G. C. Petersen, R. D. Shanks, M. K. Tarbell and O. D. Sherwood. 1989. Hormonal control of the cervix in pregnant gilts. 1. Changes in the physical properties of the cervix correlate temporally w
  • Chang, H. L., D. Gianola, R. A. Easter, L. H. Thompson and S. A. Williamson. 1988. Joint effects of fratrenal size, plan of nutrition and nursing on pig growth from birth to 20 weeks of age. Lvstk. Prod. Sci. 18:141.
  • Frank, G. R., J. M. Bahr and R. A. Easter. 1988. Riboflavin requirement of lactating swine. J. Anim. Sci. 66:47.
  • Poor, C. L., S. D. Miller, G. C. Fahey, Jr., R. A. Easter and J. W. Erdman, Jr. 1987. Animal models for carotenoid utilization studies: Evaluation of the chick and pig. Nutr. Repts. Int'l. 36:229.
  • Russell, L. E., B. J. Kerr and R. A. Easter. 1987. Limiting amino acids in an 11% crude protein corn soybean meal diet for growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 65:1266.
  • Sato, H., T. Kobyashi, R. W. Jones and R. A. Easter. 1986. Availability of tryptophan from some feedstuffs determined by pig growth assay. J. Anim. Sci. 64:191.
  • Cuaron, J. A., R. P. Chapple and R. A. Easter. 1986. Effect of lysine and threonine supplementation of sorghum gestation diets on the immuno logical response in swine. Tec. Pec. Mex. 51:81 95.
  • Jones, R. W. and R. A. Easter. 1986. Growth and survival of rats fed swine diets supplemented with vitamin K and/or warfarin. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 65: 307 309.
  • Russell, L. E., R. A. Easter, V. Gomez Rojas, G. L. Cromwell and T. S. Stahly. 1986. A note on the supplementation of low protein, maize soybean diets with lysine, tryptophan, threonine and methionine for growing pigs. Anim. Prod. 42: 291 295.
  • Lindeman, M. D., E. T. Kornegay, T. S. Stahly, G. L. Cromwell, R. A. Easter, B. J. Kerr and D. M. Lucas. 1985. The efficacy of salino mycin as a growth promotant for swine. J. Anim. Sci. 61:782 788.
  • Giesting, D. W. and R. A. Easter. 1985. Response of starter pigs to supplementation of corn soybean meal diets with organic acids. J. Anim. Sci. 60:1288 1294.
  • Jones, R. W., R. A. Easter, F. K. McKeith, R. H. Dalrymple, H. M. Maddock and P. J. Bechtel. 1985. Effect of a B adrenergic agonist (CL 260,780) on the growth and carcass characteristics of finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 61:905 913.
  • Russell, L. E., P. J. Bechtel and R. A. Easter. 1985. Effect of deficient and excess dietary B 6 on transaminase and glycogen phosphorylase content in two muscles from postpubertal gilts. J. Nutr. 115:1124 1135.
  • Russell, L. E., R. A. Easter and P. J. Bechtel. 1985. Evaluation of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase activity as an indicator of the B 6 status of postpubertal gilts. J. Nutr. 115:1117 1123.
  • Michel, E. J. and R. A. Easter. 1985. Reproductive performance of gilts and sows fed a daily 1.9 kg ration or ad libitum every third day. Lvstk. Prod. Sci. 13:179 189.
  • Cuaron, J. A., R. P. Chapple and R. A. Easter. 1984. Lysine addition to sorghum during the last third of gestation and lysine supplementation during the subsequent lactation to sows fed sorghum sesame seed meal. Tec. Pec. Mex. 47:21 32.
  • Okai, D. B., R. A. Easter and G. R. Frank. 1984. Nutritive value of some non conventional Ghanaian feed ingredients: Nutrient composition and effects on the performance of weanling rats. World Rev. Anim. Prod. 20:2:11 16.
  • Frank, G. R., R. A. Easter and J. M. Bahr. 1984. Riboflavin requirement of gestating swine. J. Anim. Sci. 59:1567 1572.
  • Cuaron, J. A., R. P. Chapple and R. A. Easter. 1984. Effect of lysine and threonine supplementation of sorghum gestation diets on nitrogen balance and plasma constituents in first litter gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 58:631 637.
  • Easter, R. A., P. A. Anderson, E. J. Michel and J. R. Corley. 1983. Response of gestating gilts and starter, grower and finisher swine to biotin, pyridoxine, folacin and thiamine additions to corn soybean meal diets. Nutr. Repts. Intl. 28:945 953.
  • O'Hearn, V. L. and R. A. Easter. 1983. Evaluation of wheat middlings for swine diets. Nutr. Repts. Intl. 28:403 411.
  • Corley, J. R., M. W. Esch, J. M. Bahr and R. A. Easter. 1983. Amino acid supplementation of low protein diets for swine: Effects of gestation treatment on reproductive performance of gilts and sows. J. Anim. Sci. 56:108 117.
  • Cuaron, J. A., R. P. Chapple and R. A. Easter. 1983. Nitrogen metabolism in nongravid female swine fed every third day. J. Anim. Sci. 56:96 100.
  • Esch, M. W., R. A. Easter and J. M. Bahr. 1981. Effect of riboflavin deficiency on estrous cyclicity in pigs. Biol. of Repro. 25:659 665.
  • Easter, R. A. and D. H. Baker. 1980. Lysine and protein levels in corn soybean meal diets for growing finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 50:467 471.
  • Michel, E. J., R. A. Easter, H. W. Norton and J. K. Rundquist. 1980. Effect of feed frequency during gestation on reproductive performance of gilts and sows. J. Anim. Sci. 50:93 98.
  • Corley, J. R., D. H. Baker and R. A. Easter. 1980. Biological availability of phosphorus in rice bran and wheat bran as affected by pelleting. J. Anim. Sci. 50:286 292.
  • Corley, J. R., R. A. Easter, G. C. Fahey, Jr. and M. A. Roos. 1978. Effect of various fiber sources on gain, feed efficiency and nitrogen retention in the weaning pig. Nutr. Repts. Intl. 18:135 142.
  • Easter, R. A. and D. H. Baker. 1977. Arginine and its relationship to the antibiotic growth response in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 45:135 142.
  • Easter, R. A. and D. H. Baker. 1977. Nitrogen metabolism of gravid gilts fed purified diets deficient in either leucine or tryptophan. J. Anim. Sci. 44:417 421.
  • Easter, R. A. and D. H. Baker. 1977. Nitrogen metabolism, tissue carnosine concentration and blood chemistry of gravid swine fed graded levels of histidine. J. Nutr. 107:120 125.
  • Easter, R. A. and D. H. Baker. 1976. Nitrogen metabolism and reproductive response of gravid swine fed an arginine free diet during the last 84 days of gestation. J. Nutr. 106:636 641.
  • Baker, D. H., R. S. Katz and R. A. Easter. 1975. Lysine requirement of growing pigs at two levels of dietary protein. J. Anim. Sci. 40:851 856.
  • Easter, R. A., R. S. Katz and D. H. Baker. 1974. Arginine; a dispensable amino acid for post pubertal growth and pregnancy in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 39:1123 1128.
  • Easter, R. A. and T. D. Tanksley, Jr. 1973. A technique for re entrant ileocecal cannulation of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 36:1099 1103.

Journal Editorships

  • 85-87 Prof. Anim. Scientist
  • 91-00 Livestock Prod. Sci
  • 98-99 Feed Science and Technology
  • 98-99 Feed Science and Technology

Honors

  • 1987 Young Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching
  • 1992 ASAS NFIA Award for Nonruminant Nutrition
  • 1993 Paul A. Funk Recognition Award

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